רשימות בודהיסטיות

הלימוד הבודהיסטי מתאפיין ברשימות המקבצות בתוכן היבטים שונים של החכמה הבודהיסטית. הקיבוץ ברשימות אופייני למסורות שהשתמרו משך דורות רבים בעל-פה, והוא "עושה סדר" בדברים ומקל על הזיכרון. המפה התמציתית הזאת – pali_terms- Lists – פורשת את הרשימות הבודהיסטיות העיקריות, וכוללת ביאורים קצרים. (הרשימה מתוך האתר Dharma Enquiry של כריסטופר טיטמוס) […]

The groups – Pali Terms from Dharma discourses
Note to readers: Dhamma is the Pali spelling. Dharma is the Sanskrit spelling

The Buddha often formulated his teachings into groups for ease to remember. The groups also show the depth and expanse addressed of human issues. The major groups are:

Two kinds of meditation
Three Jewels
Three Characteristics of Existence
Four Noble Truths (Four Truths for the Noble Ones)
Four Applications of Mindfulness,
Four Divine Abidings
Five Aggregates
Five Hindrances
Noble Eightfold Path
12 Links of dependent arising (of issues involving suffering)

1. Namo Tassa Bhagavato Arahato Sammàsambuddhassa
(Full Respect to the Blessed One, Accomplished And Fully Awakened)

2 . Two Kinds of Meditation
Dhammapada – note to verse 384 – page 660
1. samatha meditative concentration
2. vipassanā insight

3 Characteristics of Existence (ti-lakkhaṇa)
1. anicca impermanence, impermanent, transiency, unstable
2. dukkha unsatisfactoriness, problems, suffering
3. anattā not-self, non-ego, egolessness, impersonality, not I, not mine, soullessness

3 Non attachments (viveka)
1. kāya-viveka bodily non attachment
2. citta-viveka mental non-attachment
3. upadhi-viveka non-attachment to a substrata of existence

3 fold Training
1. sīla- ethics
2. samādhi- concentration
3. paññā- wisdom

3 Kinds of clear Knowledge (or: The Three True Knowledges) (tevijjā)
(MN 6.17, MN 4.27-33, MN 12.17-19, MN 39.19-21, MN 51.24-26, MN 73.22, MN 77.34, MN 101.42-44, MN 108.21)
1. knowledge of recollecting past lives
2. knowledge of the passing away and reappearing of beings (the divine eye)
3. knowledge of the destruction of the taints (also: cankers or corruptions)

3 Kinds of Craving (taṇhā)
(The Dhammapada – page 416, notes to verse 334, page 584)
1. kāmataṇhā- the sensual craving, attachment to sensual pleasures
2. bhavataṇhā- the craving for existence (eternalism), attachment to existence, attachment to life, attachment to Realms of Form
3. vibhavataṇhā- the craving for non-existence (nihilism), attachment to non-existence,
attachment to annihilation, attachment to Formless Realms
This craving is a powerful mental force latent in all, and is the chief cause of most of the ills in life. It is this craving, gross or subtle, that leads to repeated births in Samsara and that which makes one cling to all forms of life.

3 Kinds of Knowledge (paññā)
Dhammapada – footnote – page 472
1. sutamaya paññā- knowledge aquired orally
2. cintāmaya paññā- knowledge aquired by thought (i.e. scientific knowledge)
3. bhāvanāmaya paññā- superior kind of knowledge aquired by meditation and contemplation

3 Unwholesome Roots
1. lobha- greed, attachment (also rāga = lust)
2. dosa- hate, hatred, anger
3. moha- delusion, ignorance

3 Tripple Gem
1. Buddha
2. Dharma
3. Sangha

4 Absorptions
(MN 4.23-26, MN 8.4-7 / MN 25.12-15, MN 26.34-37, MN 31.10-13, MN 36.34-37, MN 66.22-29, MN 76.43-46,
MN 79.37-40, MN 101.38-41)
(These are the first four absorptions or jhānas.)
1. jhāna applied and sustained thought rapture and pleasure born of seclusion inner happiness
2. jhāna without applied and sustained thought rapture and pleasure born of concentration, self-confidence and singleness of mind sublime joy
3. jhāna equanimity, mindful and fully aware fading away as well of rapture, still feeling pleasure with the body equanimity
4. jhāna purity of mindfulness due to equanimity disappearance of joy and grief, abandoning of pleasure and pain neither pleasure nor pain

4 Bases for spiritual Power (iddhipāda) (MN 77.17, MN 16.26)
(also: Bases Of Successful Accomplishment; Four Bases Of Supernormal Power; Four Roads To Power)
1. zeal
2. energy
3. (purity of) mind
4. investigation
A bhikkhu (practitioner) develops the basis for spiritual power consisting in concentration due to zeal (energy, purity of mind, investigation) and determined striving.
[Nyanatiloka translates: 1. intention 2. energy 3. consciousness 4. investigation]

4 Bonds or Yokes (yoga)
(- also under the name of 'floods' or ogha; see under 4 Taints)

4 Brahma-Vihāras (Divine Abidings)
1. mettā- love, loving kindness, deep friendship
2. karuṇā- compassion
3. muditā- appreciative joy
4. upekkhā- equanimity

4 Formless Absorptions (Four Formless Realms or Four Immaterial Attainments)
(MN 8.8-11 / MN 25.16-19, MN 26.38-41, MN 31.14-17, MN 66.30-33)
(āyatana or ‘spheres’ is a name for the four immaterial absorptions. These are the 'higher' jhānas.)
1. realm of infinite space
2. realm of infinite consciousness
3. realm of no-thingness
4. realm of neither-perception-nor-non-perception

4 Foundations (MN 140.11)
1. foundation of wisdom
2. foundation of truth
3. foundation of letting go, relinquishment
4. foundation of peace

4 Applications (Foundations of Mindfulness) (satipaṭṭhāna)
(also: 4 Applications of Mindfulness (or Awareness))
1. kāya- body
2. vedanā- sensations and feelings, conventional and spiritual
3. citta- states of mind (mind, mental states)
4. dhamma\Dharma- truth, inner and outer

4 Kinds of analytical Knowledge (patisambhidā)
Dhammapada – notes to verse 352 – page 584
1. attha- meaning
2. dhamma- text
3. nirutti- etymology
4. paṭibhāna- understanding

4 Kinds of clinging or attachment (MN 9.34 and n.125)
1. clinging to sensual pleasures
2. clinging to views (clinging to all other types of views except the 2 mentioned)
3. clinging to rules and observances (the view that purification can be achieved by
adopting external rules or following certain observances; like ascetic self-discipline)
4. clinging to a doctrine of self (personality view in one or another of it's 20 forms)

4 Kinds of Defilements (Dhammpada – verse 418 – page 655, note 418/3 – page 661
Digha Nikaya 14 – Sutta Nipata: verse 33, 364, 546, 728)
1. khandha- the five aggregates, the five groups
2. kilesa- mental defilements, passions
3. abhisaṁkhāra karma- volitional activities
4. kāma- sensuous desire, sense desire

4 Noble Ones, Noble Persons (ariya)
(MN 6.11-13, MN 22.42-45)
1. sotāpanna- Stream-winner, stream-enterer Fetters 1 to 3 are abandoned
2. sakadāgāmī- Once-returner Fetters 4 and 5 are weakened
3. anāgāmī- Non-returner Fetters 4 and 5 are abandoned
4. arahant\Araha(n)t- Worthy One, Holy One Fetters 6 to 10 are abandoned
There are 4 noble individuals and 8 stages of holiness:
(4 supermundane paths (magga) and 4 supermundane fruits (phala)).

4 Noble Truths (ariya-sacca) Precise translation is Four Truths of the Noble Ones.
1. dukkha- suffering
2. samudaya- causes and conditions of suffering
3. nirodha- the cessation or resolution of suffering (nibbāna)
4. magga- the way to the cessation of suffering (the Noble Eightfold Path)
The first truth is to be fully understood or comprehended (pariññeyya).
The second truth is to be abandoned or eradicated (pahātabba).
The third truth is to be realised (sacchikātabbam).
The fourth truth is to be cultivated or developed (bhāvetabbam)
(From the view of a physican: The first truth is the analysis. – The second truth is the diagnosis. – The third truth is the cure. – The fourth truth is the medicine.)

4 Nutriments (āhāra)
(MN 9.11 and Buddhist Dictionary)
1. material food feeds the body
2. (sensorial and mental) impression feeds the three kinds of feeling
3. mental volition (karma) feeds formations
4. consciousness feeds mind and body
(Craving is called the origin of nutriment. With the arising of craving there is the arising of nutriment.)

4 Requisites (Dhammapada – footnote verse 217)
1. food
2. clothes
3. shelter
4. medicine

4 Taints (āsavas), namely that which stains the inner life
1. kāmāsava- the taint of sensual desire, sense desire, sensual pleasure
2. bhavāsava- the taint of (desiring eternal) existence, desire for the process of life
the taint of (desire for) being, desire for becoming
3. diṭṭhāsava- the taint of (unconducive) views or (wrong or false) views and opinions
4. avijjāsava- the taint of ignorance or lack of higher knowledge

5 Aggregates (khandhas)
(This is a description of what we think 'our' personality is.)
1. rūpa-kkhandha- aggregate of body, matter, material form
2. vedanā- kkhandha- aggregate of sensations, feelings in body and mind
3. saññā- kkhandha- aggregate of perceptions
4. sankhāra- kkhandha- aggregate of mental formations (activities), thoughts
5. viññāṇa- kkhandha- aggregate of consciousness

5 Faculties (or: Five Spiritual Faculties) (indriya) (MN 77.18)
1. saddhā- faculty of trust, confidence
2. viriya- faculty of energy and effort
3. sati- faculty of mindfulness
4. samādhi- faculty of concentration
5. paññā- faculty of wisdom
(The development of the faculties leads to peace and enlightenment.)

5 Fetters (orambhāgiya saṁyojana)
Dhammapda – note to verse 370 – page 602
1. sakkayadiṭṭhi- self-illusion, personality belief
2. vicikicchā- doubt
3. silabbataparāmāsa- attachment to (wrongful) rites and rituals (ceremonies)
4. kāmarāga- sense-desire
5. paṭigha- hatred

5 Fetters (uddhambhāgiya saṁyojana) (pertaining to the farther shore)
Dhammapda – note to verse 370 – page 602
1. rūparāga- attachment to the Realms of Form
2. arūparāga- attachment to the Formless Realms
3. māna- conceit
4. uddhacca- restlessness
5. avijjā- ignorance

5 Hindrances (nīvaraṇa)
1. kāmacchanda- sensuous desire, sense desire, sensuality, lustful desire
2. vyāpāda or byāpāda- anger, ill-will, hate, hatred
3. thīna-middha- physical and mental laziness, lethargy, boredom, apathy
4. uddhacca-kukkucca- restlessness, worry, anxiety
5. vicikicchā doubt- scepticism, fear

5 Kinds of Māra (see also 10. Māra's army)
(Māra: the killer, bringer of death, the evil one. His attributes: anger, passion, temptation, evil)
1. The five aggregates
2. kammic activities
3. death
4. mental defilements
5. a deity

5 Powers (bala)
(MN 77.19)
1. power of faith (trust, confidence)
2. power of energy
3. power of mindfulness
4. power of concentration (samādhi)
5. power of wisdom
(The development of the powers leads to peace, leads to enlightenment. What distinguishes them from the corresponding 5 Faculties or 5 Spiritual Faculties is that they are unshakable by their opposites – e.g. faith is unshakable by faithlessness, energy is
unshakable by laziness etc. They represent, therefore, the aspect of firmness in the Spiritual Faculties.)

5 Precepts
1. – not killing
2. – not stealing
3. – not engaging in sexual harm or unwholesome sexual behaviour
4. – not lying
5. – not getting intoxicated, not heedlessly engaging in drugs or alcohol

6 Outer or External Bases (āyatana – bāhira)
1. form or visible object
2. sound or audible object
3. odour or olfactive object
4. taste or gustative object
5. body-impression or tactile object or touch
6. mind- object – mind-base or consciousness (manāyatana) is a collective term for all consciousness.

6 Kinds of direct Knowledge (or 6 Super Knowledges) (abhiññā)
(MN 6.14-16, MN 12.6-8 und 17-19, MN 73.19, MN 77.31, MN 108.18)
1. knowledge of the modes of psychic power
2. divine ear – element
3. penetration of other minds, ability to read the minds of others
4.- 6. three kinds of clear knowledge (see also there)
(Only the knowledge of the destruction of the taints (Nr. 6) is supramundane, the other five are mundane, products of the extraordinarily powerful degree of mental concentration achieved in the fourth jhāna.)

7 Factors of Enlightenment (bojjhanga) (MN 10.42 und 118.29-40)
1. sati- mindfulness, awareness with clear comprehension
2. dhamma-vicaya- investigation and research, investigation of states, dhamma inquiry
3. viriya- energy, right effort
4. pīti joy- delight, rapture (it is a mental 'feeling'), bliss, enthused interest
5. passaddhi- tranquillity
6. samādhi- concentration
7. upekkhā- equanimity

8 Attainments (aṭṭhasamāpatti)
Dhammpada – footnote to verse 373 – page 602
1. four Rūpa Jhānas
2. four Arūpa Jhānas

8 Kinds of Knowledge
The Dhammapada – page 297
1. iddhividha- psychic powers
2. dibba-sota- divine ear
3. ceto-pariya-ñāṇa- penetration of the minds of others
4. dibbacakkhu- divine eye
5. pubbenivāsa-nussati- remembrance of former births
6. asavakkhaya- extinction of corruptions
7. vipassanā- insight
8. manomayiddhi- creation of mental images

8 Noble Eightfold Path (ariya aṭṭhangika magga)
1. sammā-diṭṭhi- conducive, fulfilling understanding or view
2. sammā-sankappa- conducive fulfilling attitude or thought or intention
3. sammā-vācā- conducive fulfilling speech
4. sammā-kammant-a conducive fulfilling action
5. sammā-ājiva- conducive livelihood
6. sammā-vāyāma- conducive effort or exertion
7. sammā-sati- conducive awareness or mindfulness or meditation
8. sammā-samādhi- conducive samadhi or concentration
(sammā literally means: 'conducive to the path'; sometimes translators use 'right' or 'skilful' instead of 'conducive')
Steps 1 and 2 belong to wisdom (paññā).
Steps 3, 4 and 5 belong to ethics (sīla).
Steps 6, 7 and 8 belong to concentration (samādhi).
1: is the understanding of the “Four Noble Truths”.
2: thoughts free from sensuous desire, ill-will and cruelty
3: abstaining from lying, harsh language and gossip
4: abstaining from killing, stealing and unwholesome or harmful sexual behaviour
5: abstaining from a livelihood that brings harm to other beings, such as trading in arms, drugs, poison, alcohol,
slaughtering, fishing, deceit, trickery etc …
6: the effort to avoid evil and to overcome evil and unwholesome things; the effort to develop and maintain wholesome things
7: awareness in contemplating body, feelings, mind and mind-objects
8: concentration of mind associated with wholesome consciousness, which eventually may reach the absorptions

8 Wordly Conditions (loka-dhamma)
1. gain (or profit) and loss
2. success and defeat (or failure)
3. praise and blame
4. pleasure and pain

10 Defilements (kilesa)
(defilements are mind- defiling, unwholesome qualities – see also: hindrances)
1. lobha- greed, attachment
2. dosa- hate
3. moha- delusion
4. māna- conceit
5. diṭṭhi- (unconducive) view, (speculative) view etc.
6. vicikicchā- sceptical doubt
7. thīna mental torpor
8. uddhacca- restlessness
9. ahirika- shamelessness
10. anottappa- lack of moral dread or unconscientiousness

10 Fetters (saṁyojana)
1. sakkāya-diṭṭhi- self-delusion, personality view, personality belief
2. vicikicchā- doubt, sceptical doubt
3. sīlabbata-parāmāsa- attachment to rites and rituals or clinging to external observances
4. kāma-rāga- sensual lust, greed, craving, sense-desire
5. vyāpāda- anger, ill-will, hate, hatred, aversion
6. rūpa-rāga- greed for material existence, craving for form, craving for fine-material
existence, craving for being
7. arūpa-rāga- greed or craving for immaterial existence, craving for formless existence,
craving for non-being
8. māna- conceit („I am”), pride
9. uddhacca- restlessness
10. avijjā- ignorance

10 Meritorious Deeds (kusala)
(Comment on the Dhammapada, verse 43, page 112)
1. generosity
2. morality
3. meditation
4. reverence
5. service
6. transference of merit
7. rejoicing in other's merit
8. hearing the doctrine
9. expounding the doctrine
10. straightening one's views

10 Noble Qualities (pāramīs)
1. giving
2. virtue
3. renunciation
4. wisdom
5. energy
6. patience
7. truthfulness
8. resolution, determination
9. loving-kindness
10. equanimity

10 Powers of a Tathāgata
(MN 12.10 – 19)
1 He understands the possible as possible and the impossible as impossible.
2 He understands the results of actions undertaken with possibilities and with causes.
3 He understands the ways leading to all destinations.
4 He understands the world with its many and different elements.
5 He understands how beings have different inclinations.
6 He understands the disposition of the faculties of other beings.
7 He understands the defilement, the cleansing, and the emergence in regard to the jhānas, liberations, concentrations, and attainments.
8 He recollects his manifold past lives.
9 He sees with the 'devine eye' beings passing away and reappearing.
10 He enters upon and abides in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the taints.
Points 8 to 10 are the '3 Kinds Of Clear Knowledge' which are part of the '6 Kinds Of Direct Knowledge'.

10 Wholesome Actions (kamma-patha)
(MN 9.6; MN 41.12-14; Buddhist dictionary)
3 bodily actions 1. avoidance of killing , 2. stealing and 3. unwholesome sexual behaviour
4 verbal actions 1. avoidance of lying, 2. slandering, 3. rude speech and 4. foolish babble
3 mental actions 1. unselfishness, 2. good-will and 3. conducive views

12 Dependent Arising (paṭicca samuppāda) (also: Dependent Origination)
1. avijjā- ignorance, ways of ignoring, ways of not seeing, unknowing
2. sankhārā- formations: whole- and unwholesome volitions, kammic actions
3. viññaṇa- consciousness (six kinds: eye-c., ear-c. … mind-c.)
4. nāmarūpa- name and form, mentality and materiality, mind and matter mentality: feeling, perception, volition, contact, attention (MN 9.54) materiality: the four great elements and the material form derived from the four great elements (solidity, cohesion, heat, distension)
5. saḷāyatana- six sense-bases, the sixfold base (eye-base, ear-base … mind-base)
6. phassa- contact, sense-impression (six classes of contact: eye-contact, ear-contact, nose-contact … mind-contact)
7. vedanā- feeling (six classes of feeling: feeling born of eye-contact, feeling born of ear-contact … feeling born of mind-contact)
8. taṇhā- craving (six classes: craving for forms, sounds, odours … mind-objects)
(desire, wanting)
9. upādāna- clinging (holding unto, attached to)
10. bhava- becoming, being, process of becoming (renewal of existence)
11. jāti- birth (coming into existence)
12. jarā-maraṇa- ageing and death (old age and death)

37 Requisites of Enlightenment (bodhipakkhiyā dhammā)
(MN – introduction page 33 and 34)
1. satipaṭṭhāna- the four foundations of mindfulness
2. sammappadhāna- the four right kinds of striving
3. iddhipāda- the four bases for spiritual power
4. indriya- the five faculties
5. bala- the five powers
6. bojjhanga the seven enlightenment factors
7. ariya aṭṭhangika magga- the Noble Eightfold Path

Sources:
1. Majjhima Nikāya, The Middle Length Discourses Of The Buddha, Translated by Bhikkhu Ñāṇamoli and Bhikkhu
Bodhi, BPS Kandy, Sri Lanka, 1995
2. Nyanatiloka, Buddhist Dictionary, Fourth Revised Edition, BPS Kandy, Sri Lanka
3. The Dhammapada by K. Sri Dhammananda / ISBN (1992) 983-99523-1-5
4. ‘Light on Englightenment’ by Christopher Titmuss. A commentary on important groups.
5. Walpola Sri Rahula: ‘What The Buddha Taught’, Haw Trai Foundation, Thailand, 1988
These pages are written in Gandhari Unicode for the Pali letters.
May all beings live with clarity and wisdom

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